Manajemen Adaptif

Makna belajar sambil berbuat dengan sifat sains

Pemikiran Manajemen dipengaruhi oleh banyak disiplin ilmu pengetahuan lain. Kontek lingkungan dan sosial dalam hal ini tertuju kepada system kerja ilmu pengetahuan untuk dapat bergerak ke masa depan. Pemikiran manajemen berbeda-beda oleh pengaruh pengetahuan menimbulkan aliran dan berbagai pendekatan di dalamnya.

Seorang manajer dengan tanggungjawabnya akan segera melakukan proses-proses manajemen seperti perencanaan, pengorganisasian, pengendalian, koordinasi, memotivasi, komunikasi dan kepemimpinan. Menurut Cunningham, Cunningham and Saigo (2005) pilihan rasional tentang perencanaan dan membuat keputusan diasumsikan bahwa, masalah dapat diselesaikan dengan adanya data, perangkat yang memadai, model yang tersedia, dana yang cukup. Seringkali manajer dihadapkan kepada ketidak-tepatan dalam mengenali pola masalah yang penting. Informasi menjadi sangat penting dalam hal manajemen yang lebih baik bagi manajer.

Masalah yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan dan sosial seringkali tidak dapat diprediksi, tidak dapat diselesaikan dengan peraturan dan regulasi yang sederhana, lebih bersifat sains dan seruan etika. Seringkali penyelesaian yang terbaik berasal dari perencanaan yang berbasis komunitas dan bentuk kesepakatan, khususnya masalah yang sulit dan kompleks. Pakar ekologi CS Holling dan Lance Gunderson; pakar perencanaan Steven Light dan Kai Lee (Cunningham et al., 2005) mengajukan suatu pendekatan manajemen penyesuaian atau diistilahkan dengan belajar sambil berbuat (learning by doing).

Makna belajar sambil berbuat dengan sifat sains yang melekat pada masalah pelik lingkungan alam, sosial terkait lingkungan dan ekonomi terkait lingkungan; menjadikan bekerjanya seperti tata kerja ilmu pengetahuan. Bila hipotesis yang diuji diterima maka keputusan akan berbilai benar. Sebaliknya akan bernilai salah, akan tersedia ruang yang mengijinkan manajer sedang dalam tahap belajar. Hal ini mempunyai makna ada suatu keputusan yang berbasis pada pengertian tentang karakteristik ekologis-sosial-ekonomis. Keputusan yang salah memberikan pengalaman yang baik dan dikategorikan belajar untuk keputusan ke depan berdasarkan system kerja ekologi, sosiologi dan ilmu ekonomi. Belajar tentang keputusan dan berbuat mengarah kepada peran aktif seperti peran fasilitator, namun tidak menghakimi.
Capaian manajemen dalam hal ini terdesain sebagai “eksperimen” dan mengijinkan tanpa harapan. Namun tujuan perlu mendapatkan perhatian kepada hasil pengertian semaksimal mungkin mendapatkan jawaban dansolusi masalah. Relasi yang diperhatikan adalah alam sekitar dan masyarakat yang merupakan kombinasi antara ekologi, sosial dan ekonomi.

Manajer mendapat mandate untuk mengambil keputusan suatu tindakan dalam hal ketidaktentuan capaian. Selanjutnya perlu kesadaran bahwa ada dalam kondisi “eksperimen” dan sedang menguji hipotesis yang telah diformulasikan. Selanjutnya tersedia teori (kumpulan hipotesis yang masih berlaku dan tahan uji), model dan metode untuk estimasi dan mengambil kesimpulan skala perilaku ekosistem (Kai N Lee, 1993 dalam Cunningham et al., 2005)


Cunningham, WP, MA Cunningham and B Saigo. 2005 Environmental Science: A Global Concern. Eight Edition. McGrawHill nCompany Inc.. New York.

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